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A Novel Tip-positioning Control of a Magnetically Steerable Guidewire in Sharply Curved Blood Vessel for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Jayoung Kim, Phu Bao Nguyen, Byungjeon Kang, Eunpyo Choi, Jong-Oh Park*, and Chang-Sei Kim*
International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 17, no. 8, pp.2069-2082, 2019

Abstract : This paper suggests a novel method for the positioning control of a magnetically steerable guidewire without needing to detect a tip angle, which can pass through sharply curved blood vessels with potentially reduced contact between the guidewire end tip and the blood vessel for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). The proposed tip-positioning control consists of four parts: 1) Path-regeneration, 2) Feeding control, 3) EMA (Electromagnetic Actuator) control, and 4) Vision tracking. Path-regeneration provides an improved path based on the properties of the guidewire and the size of the blood vessel when the guidewire cannot follow the pre-planned path. Based on the desired path, the feeding control drives the translational motion of the guidewire while the EMA system steers the guidewire’s end tip, which is made of a permanent magnet. A pair of Helmholtz coils is employed for the EMA system, and a vision-tracking algorithm is used to detect the position of the magnet tip in real time. The system was integrated for the preliminary study, and the magnet tip could be controlled so as to track a desired path without any shape or curvature information, which requires the use of an additional catheter model or angle estimation algorithm. The proposed catheter tip position control method was verified by experiments on both smooth and sharply curved blood vessel phantoms. The results showed that the proposed method could accomplish the tip position control of the guidewire with high accuracy in real time.

Keyword : Catheter, magnetically steerable guidewire, percutaneous coronary intervention, position control.

 
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